State Profile

Vulnerability Profile of Nagaland State in brief

Nagaland lies in the north-east of India bordering Myanmar. It is bounded by Manipur in the South, Arunachal Pradesh on the North-West and Assam in the West. Geographically Nagaland constitutes the Northern part of the Indo-Burmese range. The topography represents a rugged terrain.

The total area of Nagaland is 16,579 sq km with a total population of 19,88,636 persons according to 2001 census. The major rivers are Dhansiri, Doyang and Dikhu, while the highest peak is Mount Saramati with a height of 3840 metres. The average rainfall is about 2500 mm / annum.

The greater part of Nagaland is hilly and rugged terrain. Though the vegetation cover is dwindling, still there are many areas which are inaccessible. The stretch of land bordering Assam is flat and low lying. Anthropogenic activities which includes jhum cultivation, deforestation and reckless burning of forest land are a matter of concern for environmental degradation and soil erosion. Natural damage to the environment is also a major factor of concern as the land is hilly and rugged, and the adverse climatic conditions of very cold winters, hot summers and heavy rains have very serious bearings on the soil.

The very rapid growth of population is another factor of concern. In 1991, the population of Nagaland was 12.20 lakhs. However, it shot up to 19.88 lakhs in the year 2001. This trend of growth if not controlled will in a short time result in creating a big gap between supply and demand as land is not growing and its resources are dwindling.

Geologically Nagaland forms a part of the northern extension of theArakan-Yoma Range representing some of the Cretaceous and Tertiary orogenic upheavals forming a fairly young and mobile belt of the earth.

The Disang Group of rocks are characterised by monotonous sequences of splintery shales and are classified as a geosynclinal facies comprising flysch sediments that range in age from Upper Cretaceous to Eocene. They spread over about half the surface area of Nagaland State. These rocks occupy the intermediate hill region of Nagaland to the east of the Disang Thrust. The shales of the Disang Group of rocks are very fine grained, finely laminated and commonly exhibit curved or concentric surfaces. These are weak rocks and cover greater part of Nagaland. The Barail group of rocks comprises thick sequences of sandstones intercalated with very thin beds of shales and conformably overlies the Disang. Though they are hard and compact, they occupy only a few tracts of the state. Alluvium and High-level terraces cover extensive portions of Nagaland. The High-level terraces are dominantly boulder beds with coarse sands, gravels and un-assorted clays at various levels above the present rivers.

Another Vulnerability of Nagaland is the increased concentration of population in hazardous environments. This is also another cause of concern because many people are still unaware of the dangers of concentrating in hazardous areas. Lack of adequate infrastructure is a major vulnerability, because most of the structures in Nagaland, both Government and Private have been constructed without proper planning and expert consultancy. Above that, land use planning has never been a point for consideration for all types of developmental activities.

The different hazards faced by Nagaland are listed below:

EarthquakeNagaland with the rest of the Northeastern states falls under earthquake zone –v, making it a very high risk state.
LandslideWith all young, weak rocks and the rugged topography, the greater part of Nagaland is prone to landslides. Rock falls are also common. Above this, many towns and villages including the capital city Kohima lies above the Disang basement. This makes it more vulnerable.
CloudburstCloud bursts is a common phenomena in Nagaland. Because of this, it results in Landslides and flash floods.
FloodThough the greater part of Nagaland may not be affected by flood because of the hilly terrain, all the low lying areas adjoining Assam are prone to flood. Flash floods are common in the hills.
FireAll types of fire disasters viz. Forest fire, Urban fire and Rural Domestic fire are very common.
High speed windThe higher hills and the foothills adjoining Assam are prone to this.
AccidentsThe different types of accidents, more so that of road accident is very common in Nagaland.




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